The tea ceremony, literally translated as "way of tea" in Japanese, "etiquette for tea" or "tea rite" in Korean, and "art of tea" in Chinese, is a cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of tea. The Japanese tea ceremony is called Chanoyu, Sado or simply Ocha in Japanese. Towards the end of the ceremony, there will be time to inspect and appreciate the tea bowl by lifting it. Most of today's schools of tea ceremony, including Omotesenke and Urasenke, developed from his teachings. With your right hand, turn it clockwise by around 90 degrees so that its front is not facing you anymore. And, yes, It is the ceremonial presentation of a powdered green tea called matcha. Flowers with gaudy colors or deep scents are avoided as they are a distraction. Until the late 1800s only rich nobles suc The sweetness of the beautifully-made, seasonal wagashi (和菓子: Japanese confections) offer a complimentary contrast to the bitter tea. Japanese Tea Ceremony Hishaku & Chawanby Penn State (CC BY-NC-ND). The history of Japanese tea ceremony goes back to the arrival of the first tea leaves from China during the Nara period . The Japanese Tea Ceremony (Chanoyu), otherwise known as the ‘Way of Tea’ (Sado or Ocha) involves the preparation and serving of It is from these gatherings that the tea ceremony has its origins. Before one entered one had to wash one’s hands in the stone basin (chozu-bachi) provided for that purpose. "Japanese Tea Ceremony." You may see from the image below that there is a small wooden door to the bottom right hand side of the picture. Although the Japanese word for the tea ceremony, chanoyu, literally means “hot water for tea,” the practice involves much more than its name implies.Chanoyu is a ritualized, secular practice in which tea is consumed in a specialized space with codified procedures. Last modified May 30, 2019. Also known as Chanoyu or Sado, the Japanese tea ceremony involves the serving and drinking of a powdered Japanese green tea known as Matcha in addition to Japanese sweets to reduce the b The ceremony developed from Zen Buddhism, and … Related Content One of the most influential figures on the evolution of the tea ceremony was the 16th-century CE monk and tea master Sen no Rikyu (1522-1591 CE). Another desirable quality to foster is sabi, that is the faded beauty seen in much-loved and well-used objects which acquire a unique patina that only time can give. Each piece of equipment was carefully selected according to circumstance and has its specific place. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. From the 2nd century BCE, Buddhist monks began to drink tea to help support themselves while they meditated and to ward off sleep. One thing that most drinkers agree on is that the host should make the tea themselves, helping foster a greater atmosphere of intimacy. The garden is deliberately kept tranquil and simple to encourage a calm spirit. History of the Japanese Tea Ceremony. Decorative elements in the tearoom, include an alcove (tokonoma) where a scroll or seasonal flowers are displayed. An alternative type is the Zen rock garden which is a hyper-minimalist dry landscape garden (karesansui) consisting only of immaculately raked sand or gravel and a few choice stones. This all changed when the 15th-century CE shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (r. 1449-1473 CE) made the whole thing a much more sober and subdued event. Tea-drinking began in China, and its discovery is credited to the Indian sage Bodhidharma (aka Daruma), the founder of Zen Buddhism. All of these decorative elements together should provide a harmonious and calming atmosphere. By the 17th century CE, the tea ceremony had become so popular that everyone was getting involved, not just the upper classes. The flooring consisted of tatami matting. There might be a toilet in a separate room and light came from windows and through paper screens. Tea ceremony, Japanese chadō or sadō (“way of tea”) or cha-no-yu (“hot-water tea”), time-honoured institution in Japan, rooted in the principles of Zen Buddhism and founded upon the reverence of the beautiful in the daily routine of life. Traditional Japanese tea ceremonies use matcha (stone-ground powdered green tea). A tea house was not large, perhaps only three square metres and almost completely empty. Cartwright, M. (2019, May 30). It takes place in a room, sparsely decorated with tatami mats and a hanging scroll or flower arrangement, with up to five guests kneeling on cushions. One of the people who influenced this art was the great ‘tea master’ Sen no Rikyu. Tea ceremonies of varying degrees of formality and authenticity are offered by many organizations across Japan, including at some traditional gardens, culture centers and hotels. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 30 May 2019. Kyoto and Uji are among the best destinations in the country to enjoy Japan's tea culture. The tea bowl is placed onto the tatami mat in front of you, with its front facing you. This small garden or cha-niwa, typically has a stepping stone path (tobi-ishi) leading from the main house. The first implication here is that the image of religious rituals, offerings, etc is strong. One might use fine lacquerware or a beautifully carved bamboo implement or a kettle of exquisitely worked metal - all of these details would be noticed by the guests. Cartwright, Mark. From China, the habit spread along with other ideas via traders, diplomats, and visiting monks so that eventually it reached Japan in the 8th century CE, evolving into a whole cultural experience from the 13th century CE onwards. One of Japan's spiritual disciplines which is not merely watched, but can also be easily appreciated and enjoyed through direct experience is chado (sado), or tea ceremony.. Finally, a third type of garden was designed not for looking at but for calming the guests on their way to the medieval tea house (or the modern equivalent for those with the outdoor space). Then, they are asked to sit and wait until the tea is made. "the way of tea" or 茶の湯, chanoyu) is a Japanese tradition steeped in history. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. This content was made possible with generous support from the Great Britain Sasakawa Foundation. Preparing tea in this ceremony means pouring all one's attention into the predefined movements. Chadō or sadō ("the way of tea"; sometimes also called chanoyu, "hot water for tea", or ocha, literally just "tea") is the ritual of preparing and serving green tea. This is where, traditionally, guests would enter the tea room. 26 Dec 2020. According to 8th century Zen Buddhist Eisai, matcha is the ultimate mental and medical remedy which has the ability to make ones life more full and complete. But the story of how it came to be is an epic tale spanning centuries, including political intrigue, murder and suicide along the way. The entry in the Nihon Koki states that the Buddhist monk Eichu personally prepared and served sencha to the Emperor Saga who was on an excursion in Karasaki in the year 815. Finally, some of the finer implements may be returned in order for the guests to discuss their appreciation of them. If you have any updates, suggestions, corrections or opinions, please let us know: Copyright © 1996-2020 All Rights Reserved. The Japanese tea ceremony is a popular ritual which is held in the country to mark the preparation and serving of Japanese green tea. Long regarded as one of the cornerstones of Japanese culture, the chadō, or tea ceremony is a quintessential expression of aestheticism and philosophy in perfect harmony. Following our previous post Simplicity and Seasonality in Japanese Tea Ceremony, today we will go into greater detail about the different types of tea ceremonies that exist in Japan to this day.. As Yukiko will explain, the Japanese tea ceremony (and this Online Escape) all comes down to one very important thing: ICHI-GO-ICHI-E. A tea ceremony is a ritualized form of making tea practiced in East Asia by the Chinese, Koreans and Japanese. Japanese tea house, Chashitsu in Japanese, is where Chado, the tea ceremony takes place, which expresses Japanese sentimentality and aesthetics through the act of drinking tea. The ritual preparation of tea is very simple, simplicity is one of the basics for preparing a bowl of green tea for the guests. A final touch might be an incense jar. Inside, one might have flowers and these would be displayed according to the aesthetic principles which prevail in Japanese flower arranging, itself an art form and known as ikebana. Tea was introduced to Japan in the 8th century from China and was drunk as a medicinal beverage mainly amongst priests and the upper class. People who study the tea ceremony have to learn about different kinds of tea. The Japanese tea ceremony (called cha-no-yu, chado, or sado) is a special way of making green tea (matcha 抹茶). Bow and express gratitude after receiving and finishing your tea. Cartwright, Mark. Pick it up with your right hand and place it on your left palm. The entrance for guests is sometimes kept low so that entering guests have to bend over, symbolizing humility. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. There is an alcove in front of the tea room which is decorated with scrolls and various types of flowers. However, most tea ceremonies these days are much abbreviated events that are limited to the enjoyment of a bowl of thin tea. It is a ceremonial way of preparing and drinking green tea typically in a traditional tearoom with tatami floor. The Japanese tea ceremony first became popular with the nobles and elite of Japan back in the Heian Period (794-1185). Japanese Tea Ceremony. The tea ceremony emphasizes the enjoyment of taste as one of its values. Secondly, a ceremony is performed in We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. In Japanese, the tea ceremony is called chanoyu, meaning 'hot water for tea', or chado or sado, meaning 'way of the tea’, tea being cha in Japanese. Indeed, at least initially, secular tea parties were far removed from their tranquil beginnings at Buddhist monasteries and were often quite rowdy affairs where the game of guessing exactly what tea was being drunk was a popular element. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia. A Japanese sweet is served before tea and is supposed to be eaten before the tea is drunk. It's best to buy it directly from Japan or from a specialised shop to avoid cheap powdered tea from China. Japanese Tea Roomby Angelina Earley (CC BY-NC-ND). With a specifically designed room, landscaped garden, and fine porcelain all becoming essential components of the ceremony, drinking tea became nothing less than an art form. The desired greenery is evergreens rather than flowers, and then moss or soft grass underfoot to begin the calming effect of the ceremony before it has even started. All the necessary equipment should have already been laid out before the guests, and only the kettle is hidden from their view. The tea ceremony is the ultimate in Japanese … The Japanese tea ceremony developed over many years. Wear modest clothes, remove jewelry that may damage the tea equipment and avoid strong perfumes. The traditional tea ceremony venue is surrounded by a garden, although many modern venues lack a garden. Like most things that you will encounter in Japan, there is a firmly established routine and etiquette to follow for both the host making the tea, and the guests drinking the tea. Although other green teas can be found in different parts of the world, matcha is exclusive to Japan. All of the equipment used in the tea ceremony should be of the very highest quality. In medieval Japan, tea was usually prepared by pounding the leaves and making a ball with amazura (a sweetener from grapes) or ginger, which was then left to brew in hot water which had usually been boiled in an iron kettle over charcoal. What is your preferred length for a travel report video on YouTube? For one thing, even among the Japanese themselves, tea ceremony is considered a hard-to-understand, esoteric practice that takes years to appreciate. A Japanese tea ceremony room typically has a tatami floor – a type of mat that is traditionally made from rice straw. The ceremony was now firmly established in Japanese culture and came to epitomise four essential qualities of everyday life in Japan, as here summarised by the historian W. E. Deal: Detail, Ryoanji Zen Rock Gardenby Jean-Pierre Dalbéra (CC BY). The diet of ancient Japan was heavily influenced by its geography... Buddhist monasteries have been part of the Japanese cultural landscape... Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan, The Japanese Tea Ceremony: Cha-no-Yu and the Zen Art of Mindfulness, The Book of Tea: Beauty, Simplicity and the Zen Aesthetic, The Japanese Way of Tea: From Its Origins in China to Sen Rikyu, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Today, the tea ceremony is practiced as a hobby, and there are places where tourists can experience it, as well. The host typically prepares the tea in front of the guests. Drink the tea in a few sips and place it back onto the tatami. The ceremony is traditionally held in a tatami room. We strive to keep Japan Guide up-to-date and accurate, and we're always looking for ways to improve. A great help in achieving the desired atmosphere of tranquillity is to provide the tea room with the correct sort of view. The Japanese tea ceremony was influenced by the Chinese tea culture during ancient and medieval times, starting in the 9th century when tea was first introduced t Again, the choice of a suitable subject would reflect on the connoisseurship of the tea host with landscapes being favoured or a fine example of calligraphy. This is the tea room or chashitsu, also known as a sukiya or 'house of the imperfect', alluding to the structure’s original simple architecture and basic materials. It’s a spiritual experience that demonstrates respect through etiquette and … Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 30 May 2019 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The Japanese Tea Ceremony (chanoyu or chado) is a cultural tradition involving very particular places, procedures, and equipment for drinking green tea. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The interior of the medieval minimalist tea room/house would be copied in private homes right down to today. The host may ask if guests would like another round of tea, and if not, the tea ceremony is over when the host washes the tea utensils and returns the equipment to where they were before starting. After a bow, the head guest enters the room and takes the seat closest to the alcove, followed by the other guests. 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